The first images open a new era of astronomy

who are they nebulaea group of galaxiesexoplanet, a galaxy cluster So the deep field is the first images and spectra From the introduced James Webb Space Telescope and the start of scientific operations. This new dawning of astronomy has been unanimously welcomed by the scientific community, which anticipates major developments in many areas.

James Webb is the result of an international partnership between NASAI’ESA and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).CSA). ” These first images and spectra of Webb are a huge celebration of the international collaboration that made this ambitious mission possiblesaid Josef Asbacher, Director General of the European Space Agency. I’d like to thank everyone who was involved in operating this wonderful telescope and releasing these stunning first images for Webb – you made this historic day a reality. In addition to launch services, the European Space Agency (ESA) has contributed two of the four scientific instruments (the NIRSpec instrument and the Miri instrument optical assembly), and provides personnel for mission operations at a total cost of €700 million. In return for this investment, Europe has a guaranteed minimum of 15% of the monitoring time, but for the first monitoring cycle, due to the quality of the monitoring requests from Astronomy scientists For Europeans, the share for European scientists is about 30%.

SMACS 0723 deep field to the edge of the universe

The first image to be revealed is the SMACS 0723 deep field whose precise observation tells a storyUniverse In all ages, 13.8 billion years ago. This deep field is used gravity lens A cluster of galaxies to reveal some of the most distant galaxies ever discovered. With a viewing time of just 12.5 hours, this image only scratches the surface of Webb’s deep-field capabilities. Pierre Ferrouette, JWST program manager at the European Space Agency, confirmed that some of the elements visible in this image are more than 13 billion years old. They only formed a few hundred million years later the great explosion. A quick reading of the data for this image does not make it possible to date confirmed objects that formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Further analysis of the image is necessary to obtain an accurate dating. Other deep fields, with longer exposure times, will be produced in the coming months, some identical to those inHubble And everything indicates that James Webb will discover galaxies that are only a hundred million years old.

Planetary nebula in our neighborhood

From birth to death planetary nebulaJames-Webb can explore dust and Gas subordinate stars Old age that could one day become a new star or planet. It should be noted that the NIRCam and Miri machines complement each other very well. The first will provide the images with a very good level of detail and a very good presentation. It is well suited for observing hot objects such as galaxies. On the contrary, Dust will see less cool. As for Meri, her primary concern is that the stars in her field of vision tend to disappear. Therefore, this tool is very useful for observing extremely cold objects, including dust, and finding light Galaxies that were so old that they no longer emit in the visible.

Spectrum changes the era of planetary spectroscopy

James Webb has been discovered molecules of water on an exoplanet which is clearly not an indication of the existence of extraterrestrial life. This spectrum is interested in demonstrating much of the remarkable capabilities of the NIRISS instrument. Wonderful because it represents the spectrum inInfrared From the most detailed exoplanet ever seen, the first spectrum to include wavelengths greater than 1.6 micron for one Precision and resolution, the first to cover the entire wavelength from 0.6 microns (visible red light) to 2.8 microns (near infrared) in a single shot.

James-Webb will now study hundreds of other systems to discover the components of other systems ambiance planetary. Among the monitoring campaigns that have already been approved, the detailed characterization of large organic molecules should be mentioned in Orion Nebula, the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and the observation of several planetary systems including the Trappist-1b system. small Trappist Star-1in 40 light years Of us, he has this peculiarity that he has a wonderful planetary system: seven Earth-like planets, three of which have orbitals Included among those of Venus And March.

Star formation, a strong theme for James Webb

Derived from and contributed to massive amounts of gas and dust, stars orbit galaxies. Dust develops over time, and Webb can study nearby galaxies, interacting dynamically to see the dust in action. Now scientists can get a rare glimpse, in unprecedented detail, of how the galaxies that lead to star formation interact within each other and how the gas in these galaxies is affected. To get an accurate idea of ​​James-Webb’s performance, download images from the European Space Agency’s JWST website by clicking over here And walk around the picture.

Tool integration, one of James Webb’s strengths

By observing this region of star formation and others like it, scientists can, thanks to James Webb, see newly formed stars and study the gas and dust that made them.

The bottom image is a composite of images acquired with the near-infrared (NIRCam) and mid-infrared (Miri) instruments. By merging the data from the two tools, the details are revealed.

Comparing James-Webb images with images from Hubble is not as simple as it seems

Comparison between James Webb and Hubble images is still limited by the fact that the two space-based observatories do not observe the same wavelengths and do not use the same wavelengths. Colors. This explains why there are more objects in the Web images, particularly galaxies that emit red, than in the Hubble images.

You should also know that the most distant galaxies are not visible to the Hubble telescope because they are either inverted in red or located at the back in Clouds Very thick dust. In addition, Webb’s sensitivity is so intense that we’ll see background galaxies in all of his photos! So you have to be very careful when comparing them.

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